The History of China show

The History of China

Summary: A journey through the 5000 years of history documented by one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. For all the episodes for free, as well as additional content, please subscribe and/or visit http://thehistoryofchina.wordpress.com . See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

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 #178 - Yuan 3: Divine Wind | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:35:41

The armies of Great Yuan sweep across the east, destroying and conquering all who would stand against them. Goryeo Korea eventually sees the writing on the wall and cuts a deal with the Great Khan. Khubilai will then turn his sights out over the waters of the Pacific, to the Land of the Rising Sun... and send its monarch a friend request. Time Period Covered: ca. 1257-1275 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai, Great Khan of Mongolia, Emperor of Yuan Princess Hutulun Jielimishi Zhao Liangbi, Yuan Emissary to Japan Goryeo Korea: Choi Ui, Warlord of Korea [d. 1257] King Wonjong [r. 1260-1274] Im Yon, Warlord [d. ca. 1271] Pan Pu, Yuan Emissary to Japan Kamakura Japan: Hojo Tokimune, Regent of the Shogun (Shikken, de facto ruler of Japan) Shoni Sukeyoshi, Magistrate of Chikuzen City

 #177 - Yuan 2: Brother Mine | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 46:17

With the untimely death of Möngke Khaghan outside the walls of Chongqing, the Mongol Empire will be fore to choose for a new emperor for the 5th time in just three decades. Unlike the first four conclaves, however, this will result in not one, but two khuriltais, and two who would be Great Khan. Möngke’s brothers, Khubilai and Ariq Böke, will duel it out across Central Asia to determine who will rule all under the Eternal Blue Sky.Time Period Covered:1259-1266 CEMajor Historical Figures:Toluids:Möngke Khaghan [d.1259]Khubilai’s Supporters:Khubilai Khaghan [r. 1260-1289]Chabi Khatun [1225-1281]Hulegu Ilkhan [d. 1265]General Ked Bukha [d. 1260]King Hethum I of Armenia [r. 1226-1270]Ariq Böke Supporters:Ariq Böke Khaghan [r. 1260-1264, d. 1266]Berke Khan (Golden Horde/Jochid) [d. 1266]Alghu Khan (Chagatids) [d. 1265]Jumukhur (Ilkhanate)Urung Tang (Möngke Toluid)General Alandar [d. 1262]General DurchiMamluk Sultanate:Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz [r. 1259-1260]Sultan Baibars [r. 1260-1277]Song Dynasty:Chancellor Jia Sidao [d. 1273] See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 #177 - Yuan 2: Brother Mine | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:46:17

With the untimely death of Möngke Khaghan outside the walls of Chongqing, the Mongol Empire will be fore to choose for a new emperor for the 5th time in just three decades. Unlike the first four conclaves, however, this will result in not one, but two khuriltais, and two who would be Great Khan. Möngke’s brothers, Khubilai and Ariq Böke, will duel it out across Central Asia to determine who will rule all under the Eternal Blue Sky. Time Period Covered: 1259-1266 CE Major Historical Figures: Toluids: Möngke Khaghan [d.1259] Khubilai’s Supporters: Khubilai Khaghan [r. 1260-1289] Chabi Khatun [1225-1281] Hulegu Ilkhan [d. 1265] Gen. Ked Bukha [d. 1260] King Hethum I of Armenia [r. 1226-1270] Ariq Böke Supporters: Ariq Böke Khaghan [r. 1260-1264, d. 1266] Berke Khan (Golden Horde/Jochid) [d. 1266] Alghu Khan (Chagatids) [d. 1265] Jumukhur (Ilkhanate) Urung Tang (Möngke Toluid) General Alandar [d. 1262] General Durchi Mamluk Sultanate: Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz [r. 1259-1260] Sultan Baibars [r. 1260-1277] Song Dynasty: Chancellor Jia Sidao [d. 1273]

 #176 - Special: Strange Tales 4, "Zibuyu" | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 42:04

Confucius talked about a *lot* ... but there were certain things about which even the Master dare not speak. Today we break that ancient taboo with 4 stories of spooky strangeness...2:01 - "A Karmic Meal"5:30 - "The Concubine's Revenge"20:22 - "Too Poor to Be Haunted"24:26 - "A Hell of a Trial"Adapted from:Zibuyu "What the Master Would Not Discuss" by Yuan Mei See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 #176 - Special: Strange Tales 4 - Zibuyu | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:42:04

Confucius talked about a *lot* ... but there were certain things about which even the Master dare not speak. Today we break that ancient taboo with 4 stories of spooky strangeness... 2:01 - "A Karmic Meal" 5:30 - "The Concubine's Revenge" 20:22 - "Too Poor to Be Haunted" 24:26 - "A Hell of a Trial" Adapted from: Zibuyu "What the Master Would Not Discuss" by Yuan Mei

 #175 - Mongol 11.1: Ögedei Cometh | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 39:46

Genghis Khan is dead, and his 3rd son Ögedei has ben selected to lead the Mongol Empire into an uncertain future. Once he is confirmed on the throne, he'll strike on in every direction against every foe at once. On the way, there will be virgin sacrifices, talking wolves, free money, mass enslavement, Persian princes, Assassins, poison, angry water spirits, battle-mages, cannibalism... and that's just the tip of the iceberg!Note: This is part 1 of the 2-part conclusion to the life of Genghis Khan, with the conclusion available to subscribers via: www.patreon.com/thehistoryofchina Time Period Covered:1227-1234 CEMajor Historical Figures:Ogedeids:Ogedei KhaghanSubotai the ValiantGeneral ChormakhanMinister Yelu Chu CaiToluids:Tolui KhanSorkhakhtani Beki KhatunChagatids:Chagatai KhanKhwarazmia:Jalal al-DinKingdom of Georgia:Queen Rusudan See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 #175 - Mongol 11.1: Ögedei Cometh | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:39:46

Genghis Khan is dead, and his 3rd son Ögedei has ben selected to lead the Mongol Empire into an uncertain future. Once he is confirmed on the throne, he'll strike on in every direction against every foe at once. On the way, there will be virgin sacrifices, talking wolves, free money, mass enslavement, Persian princes, Assassins, poison, angry water spirits, battle-mages, cannibalism... and that's just the tip of the iceberg! Note: This is part 1, with the conclusion available to subscribers via: www.patreon.com/thehistoryofchina Time Period Covered: 1227-1234 CE Major Historical Figures: Ogedeids: Ogedei Khaghan Subotai the Valiant General Chormakhan Minister Yelu Chu Cai Toluids: Tolui Khan Sorkhakhtani Beki Khatun Chagatids: Chagatai Khan Khwarazmia: Jalal al-Din Kingdom of Georgia: Queen Rusudan

 Proclamation of the Central People's Government of the PRC, October 1, 1949 | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 3:54

The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army, backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government. Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened. Representing the will of the whole nation, [this session of the conference] has enacted the organic law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, elected Mao Zedong as chairman of the Central People's Government; and Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang as vice chairmen [of the Central People's Government]; and Chen Yi, He Long, Li Lisan, Lin Boqu, Ye Jianying, He Xiangning, Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang, Xu Xiangqian, Peng Zhen, Bo Yibo, Nie Rongzhen, Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Seypidin, Rao Shushi, Tan Kah-kee [Chen Jiageng], Luo Ronghuan, Deng Zihui, Ulanhu, Xu Deli, Cai Chang, Liu Geping, Ma Yinchu, Chen Yun, Kang Sheng, Lin Feng, Ma Xulun, Guo Moruo, Zhang Yunyi, Deng Xiaoping, Gao Chongmin, Shen Junru, Shen Yanbing, Chen Shutong, Szeto Mei-tong [Situ Meitang], Li Xijiu, Huang Yanpei, Cai Tingkai, Xi Zhongxun, Peng Zemin, Zhang Zhizhong, Fu Zuoyi, Li Zhuchen, Li Zhangda, Zhang Nanxian, Liu Yazi, Zhang Dongsun, and Long Yun as council members to form the Central People's Government Council, proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China and decided on Beijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China. The Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China took office today in the capital and unanimously made the following decisions: to proclaim the establishment of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; to adopt the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the government; to elect Lin Boqu from among the council members as secretary general of the Central People's Government Council; to appoint Zhou Enlai as premier of the Government Adminstration Council of the Central People's Government and concurrently minister of Foreign Affairs, Mao Zedong as chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government, Zhu De as commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army, Shen Junru as president of the Supreme People's Court of the Central People's Government, and Luo Ronghuan as procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the Central People's Government, and to charge them with the task of the speedy formation of the various organs of the government to carry out the work of the government. At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty.Mao ZedongChairman See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 Proclamation of the Central People's Government of the PRC, October 1, 1949 | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:03:54

The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army, backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government. Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened. Representing the will of the whole nation, [this session of the conference] has enacted the organic law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, elected Mao Zedong as chairman of the Central People's Government; and Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang as vice chairmen [of the Central People's Government]; and Chen Yi, He Long, Li Lisan, Lin Boqu, Ye Jianying, He Xiangning, Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang, Xu Xiangqian, Peng Zhen, Bo Yibo, Nie Rongzhen, Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Seypidin, Rao Shushi, Tan Kah-kee [Chen Jiageng], Luo Ronghuan, Deng Zihui, Ulanhu, Xu Deli, Cai Chang, Liu Geping, Ma Yinchu, Chen Yun, Kang Sheng, Lin Feng, Ma Xulun, Guo Moruo, Zhang Yunyi, Deng Xiaoping, Gao Chongmin, Shen Junru, Shen Yanbing, Chen Shutong, Szeto Mei-tong [Situ Meitang], Li Xijiu, Huang Yanpei, Cai Tingkai, Xi Zhongxun, Peng Zemin, Zhang Zhizhong, Fu Zuoyi, Li Zhuchen, Li Zhangda, Zhang Nanxian, Liu Yazi, Zhang Dongsun, and Long Yun as council members to form the Central People's Government Council, proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China and decided on Beijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China. The Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China took office today in the capital and unanimously made the following decisions: to proclaim the establishment of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; to adopt the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the government; to elect Lin Boqu from among the council members as secretary general of the Central People's Government Council; to appoint Zhou Enlai as premier of the Government Adminstration Council of the Central People's Government and concurrently minister of Foreign Affairs, Mao Zedong as chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government, Zhu De as commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army, Shen Junru as president of the Supreme People's Court of the Central People's Government, and Luo Ronghuan as procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the Central People's Government, and to charge them with the task of the speedy formation of the various organs of the government to carry out the work of the government. At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mao Zedong Chairman

 #174 - Yuan 1: In Xanadu Did Kubla Khan... | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:40:22

You know it’s hard out there for a prince. The fourth son of a fourth son, Khubilai of the Borjigin will grow up little recognized, and bound for a life of little more than comfortable obscurity. But between his mother’s machinations, his wife’s guidance, his own skills… and a healthy smattering of good fortune, he’ll find himself suddenly thrust into the spotlight and tasked with overseeing the conquest of the Mongols’ oldest foe. Time Period Covered: 1215-1259 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol: Tolui [c. 1191-1232] – 4th son of Genghis Khan, Khubilai’s father Sorkhokhtani Beki [c. 1190-1252] – Khubilai’s mother, Nestorian Christian Möngke Khaghan [1209-1259] – Tolui’s eldest son, 4th Great Khan of the Mongols Khubilai, Ilkhan of the Left [1215-1289] – favored grandson of Genghis Hulagu, Ilkhan of the Right [1218-1265] – 3rd son of Tolui and Sorkhokhtani Ariq Böke [1219-1266] – youngest son of Tolui, Otchigin “Hearthkeeper” Chabi Khatun [1225-1281] – Khubilai’s 2nd wife & only love, Tibetan Buddhist North China: Minister Yao Shu Liu Bingzhong, Buddhist Monk, Adviser & Architect of Kaiping/Shangdu city The Phagspa Lama [1235-1280] Dali Kingdom: King Duan Xingzhi [r. 1251-1254, 1256-1260 (as Maharaja)] Prime Minister Gao Taixiang [d. 1253] Major Sources: Atwood, Christopher P. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Broadbridge, Anne F. Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire. Clements, Jonathan. A Brief History of Khubilai Khan: Lord of Xanadu, Founder of the Yuan. May, Timothy (ed.). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 1. McLynn, Frank. Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy. Rossabi, Morris. “The Reign of Khubilai Khan” in The Cambridge History of China, v. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Weatherford, Jack. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens.

 #174 - Yuan 1: In Xanadu Did Kubla Khan... | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 40:22

You know it’s hard out there for a prince. The fourth sons of a fourth son, Khubilai of the Borjigin will grow up little recognized, and bound for a life of little more than comfortable obscurity. But between his mother’s machinations, his wife’s guidance, his own skills… and a healthy smattering of good fortune, he’ll find himself suddenly thrust into the spotlight and tasked with overseeing the conquest of the Mongols’ oldest foe.Time Period Covered:1215-1259 CEMajor Historical Figures:Mongol:Tolui [c. 1191-1232] – 4th son of Genghis Khan, Khubilai’s fatherSorkhokhtani Beki [c. 1190-1252] – Khubilai’s mother, Nestorian ChristianMöngke Khaghan [1209-1259] – Tolui’s eldest son, 4th Great Khan of the MongolsKhubilai, Ilkhan of the Left [1215-1289] – favored grandson of GenghisHulagu, Ilkhan of the Right [1218-1265] – 3rd son of Tolui and SorkhokhtaniAriq Böke [1219-1266] – youngest son of Tolui, Otchigin “Hearthkeeper”Chabi Khatun [1225-1281] – Khubilai’s 2nd wife & only love, Tibetan BuddhistNorth China:Minister Yao ShuLiu Bingzhong, Buddhist Monk, Adviser & Architect of Kaiping/Shangdu cityThe Phagspa Lama [1235-1280]Dali Kingdom:King Duan Xingzhi [r. 1251-1254, 1256-1260 (as Maharaja)]Prime Minister Gao Taixiang [d. 1253]Major Sources:Atwood, Christopher P. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire.Broadbridge, Anne F. Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire.Clements, Jonathan. A Brief History of Khubilai Khan: Lord of Xanadu, Founder of the Yuan.May, Timothy (ed.). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 1.McLynn, Frank. Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy.Rossabi, Morris. “The Reign of Khubilai Khan” in The Cambridge History of China, v. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368.Weatherford, Jack. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 "Kubla Khan" - By: Samuel Taylor Coleridge | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 2:41

Kubla KhanBY SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGEOr, a vision in a dream. A Fragment.In Xanadu did Kubla KhanA stately pleasure-dome decree:Where Alph, the sacred river, ranThrough caverns measureless to man   Down to a sunless sea.So twice five miles of fertile groundWith walls and towers were girdled round;And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;And here were forests ancient as the hills,Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.But oh! that deep romantic chasm which slantedDown the green hill athwart a cedarn cover!A savage place! as holy and enchantedAs e’er beneath a waning moon was hauntedBy woman wailing for her demon-lover!And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething,As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing,A mighty fountain momently was forced:Amid whose swift half-intermitted burstHuge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail,Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher’s flail:And mid these dancing rocks at once and everIt flung up momently the sacred river.Five miles meandering with a mazy motionThrough wood and dale the sacred river ran,Then reached the caverns measureless to man,And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean;And ’mid this tumult Kubla heard from farAncestral voices prophesying war!   The shadow of the dome of pleasure   Floated midway on the waves;   Where was heard the mingled measure   From the fountain and the caves.It was a miracle of rare device,A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!   A damsel with a dulcimer   In a vision once I saw:   It was an Abyssinian maid   And on her dulcimer she played,   Singing of Mount Abora.   Could I revive within me   Her symphony and song,   To such a deep delight ’twould win me,That with music loud and long,I would build that dome in air,That sunny dome! those caves of ice!And all who heard should see them there,And all should cry, Beware! Beware!His flashing eyes, his floating hair!Weave a circle round him thrice,And close your eyes with holy dreadFor he on honey-dew hath fed,And drunk the milk of Paradise. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 "Kubla Khan" - By: Samuel Taylor Coleridge | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:02:41

Kubla Khan BY SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE Or, a vision in a dream. A Fragment. In Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure-dome decree: Where Alph, the sacred river, ran Through caverns measureless to man Down to a sunless sea. So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round; And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery. But oh! that deep romantic chasm which slanted Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover! A savage place! as holy and enchanted As e’er beneath a waning moon was haunted By woman wailing for her demon-lover! And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething, As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing, A mighty fountain momently was forced: Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail, Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher’s flail: And mid these dancing rocks at once and ever It flung up momently the sacred river. Five miles meandering with a mazy motion Through wood and dale the sacred river ran, Then reached the caverns measureless to man, And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean; And ’mid this tumult Kubla heard from far Ancestral voices prophesying war! The shadow of the dome of pleasure Floated midway on the waves; Where was heard the mingled measure From the fountain and the caves. It was a miracle of rare device, A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice! A damsel with a dulcimer In a vision once I saw: It was an Abyssinian maid And on her dulcimer she played, Singing of Mount Abora. Could I revive within me Her symphony and song, To such a deep delight ’twould win me, That with music loud and long, I would build that dome in air, That sunny dome! those caves of ice! And all who heard should see them there, And all should cry, Beware! Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise.

 #173 - S. Song 15: Swan Song | File Type: audio/mpeg | Duration: 50:15

Hangzhou is surrounded by the Mongol Yuan army, and is soon to fall. When the child-emperor and the Empress Dowager are taken captive, it will fall to the last two princes of House Zhao to flee to the islands and archipelagos of the Deep South, if they’re to stand any chance at all of keeping the flame of the Song from guttering out forever.Time Period Covered:1275-1279 CESouthern Song:Grand Empress Dowager XieEmpress Dowager ChuanEmperor Zhao Xian (Gong of Song) [r.1274-1276, d. 1323]Emperor Zhao Shi (Duanzong) [r. 1276-1278]Emperor Zhao Bing [r. 1278-1279]Chancellor Chen YizhongMongol Yuan Dynasty:Khubilai, Mongol Khan & Emperor of YuanGeneral Bayan, Commander of the Southern CampaignGeneral AtzuhanAdmiral Dong WenpingLt. MenkhutaiLt. Fan Wenhu See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

 #173 - S. Song 15: Swan Song | File Type: audio/x-m4a | Duration: 00:50:15

Hangzhou is surrounded by the Mongol Yuan army, and is soon to fall. When the child-emperor and the Empress Dowager are taken captive, it will fall to the last two princes of House Zhao to flee to the islands and archipelagos of the Deep South, if they’re to stand any chance at all of keeping the flame of the Song from guttering out forever. Time Period Covered: 1275-1279 CE Southern Song: Grand Empress Dowager Xie Empress Dowager Chuan Emperor Zhao Xian (Gong of Song) [r.1274-1276, d. 1323] Emperor Zhao Shi (Duanzong) [r. 1276-1278] Emperor Zhao Bing [r. 1278-1279] Chancellor Chen Yizhong Mongol Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai, Mongol Khan & Emperor of Yuan General Bayan, Commander of the Southern Campaign General Atzuhan Admiral Dong Wenping Lt. Menkhutai Lt. Fan Wenhu

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