ESLPod.com's Guide to the TOEFL Test
Summary: This podcast is for anyone studying for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). It is designed to help you improve your listening comprehension skills.
Learn how to use iTunes U to study for the TOEFL Test. Special guest: Warren Ediger of SuccesfulEnglish.com.
In this special podcast, we interview Warren of SuccessfulEnglish.com about how to select and use a tutor to improve your English. We'll answer the following questions: -What should you look for in an online or face-to-face tutor? -How should you select a tutor? -What are the advantages of video tutoring versus email or voice only? -How should students prepare for the new TOEFL speaking section? -What are some other ways to use an online tutor? -What are some ways to build vocabulary and proficiency?
Script by Katrina Carrasco Audio Index Slow dialog: 1:10 Explanation: 5:02 Fast dialog: 19:10 Questions: 21:36 During the next few weeks, we will be learning about the basic principles of marketing, from conceiving the idea for a product, to developing it based on market research, to promoting its sale. If you all read the assignment for last night you should already have an idea about what we will be discussing today. What is marketing? The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines it as the “management process of anticipating, identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably.” This definition describes modern marketing, because only recently have the needs and wants of the consumer played a part in influencing marketing strategy. It has only been in that last half-decade or so, in fact, that companies have based their product development on market research. Before market research was developed, companies produced whatever goods they felt were most useful, but left it up to salespeople to find the best ways to sell those goods to customers. Two terms we will be using frequently in our discussions over the coming weeks are acquisition and base management. These terms describe two key parts of marketing strategy. Acquisition refers to the process of acquiring new customers, through advertisings, promotions, and product placement. Base management refers to the process of maintaining relationships with existing customers, as well as identifying other products they need through interacting with those customers. One of the chapters I assigned for today was the introduction to Advertising. As you would have read, advertising is a crucial part of marketing. Advertising plays a major part in the acquisition process, and it is probably the part of marketing that you, as young consumers, have most come into contact with. Advertising and promotion are part of today’s basic marketing strategy, but they fly in the face of classical economic theory, which operates on the idea that supply and demand are not dependent on one another. If the supplier of a good promotes that good, they are in essence telling the consumer, or demand side of the equation, what it is that they want to consume. Supply is trying to influence demand. Some critics argue that this perverts the ideal free market.
Script by Meropi Peponides Audio Index: Slow Dialog: 1:19 Explanations: 3:26 Fast Dialog: 23:40 Questions: 25:06 Anna: I was riding my bike across campus, when suddenly, out of nowhere, I saw someone step right in front of me. I yelled “Watch out!” so that he could move out of the way, and I barely missed him. But he dropped his notebook, and papers started to fly everywhere. I decided to stop to help him pick them up. Anna: Hey, are you okay? I’m really sorry. I didn’t see you until the last minute, and I couldn’t stop. Nick: It’s alright. I was just startled, that’s all. Thanks for helping me pick up my papers. I think we got them all. I’m so scatterbrained, I probably wouldn’t have even noticed if something was lost. Anna: Yeah, I’m the same way. Hey, you look really familiar. Have we met before? Nick: You know what, I thought I recognized you. You’re Carl’s friend, right? We met at his party about a month ago. Anna: That’s right! Good memory. Look, I’m really awful with names, what’s yours again? Nick: I’m Nick. It’s nice to see you again. Anna: Hey Nick, I’m Anna. Nick: I remember. Anna: Oh, of course. Hey, what are you up to right now? If you have time, I’d love to grab a cup of coffee or something. Nick: Actually, that sounds great. I was meaning to ask Carl for your number so we could hang out sometime. Anna: Really? What a coincidence that I ran into you then. Literally. Nick: Yeah, it certainly was. Let’s get that coffee.
Script by Meropi Peponides Audio Index: Slow Dialog: 0:55 Explanations: 3:07 Fast Dialog: 17:37 Questions: 19:05 Fiona: Hi, Chris. How are you? Chris: Hey, Fiona. Thanks for meeting me here on such short notice. The thing is, I needed to ask you something and I thought sooner was better than later. Fiona: No problem. It worked out that we were both on campus. What’s the question? Chris: Well, I was thinking about how we have to move out of the dorms next year. Fiona: Yeah, I know. No more dining halls! I’m just excited about getting away from that lousy food, but of course that means I’m going to have to cook for myself. So I will probably be worse off. Chris: Yeah. Anyway, do you know where you’re going to live next year? Fiona: I hadn’t really given it much thought. Why do you ask? Chris: Well, I thought maybe you and I could share an apartment. If you don’t mind moving a little further away from campus, we could probably afford to have our own rooms. Fiona: Oh. Well, I don’t know if I want to move far away…It would be fun to share an apartment though in order to split the costs. Chris: That’s what I’m thinking. Or we could find a couple more roommates in order to to afford something near campus. If you could find another girl and I could find another guy to share a room with, we’d be set. Fiona: Maybe. Can I think about it and let you know? Chris: Of course! Take your time. We have a while; I just wanted to start apartment hunting early so we could find something good. Fiona: Sounds like a plan. I’ll let you know as soon as I make a decision.
Script by Dr. Lucy Tse Audio Index Slow dialog: 1:06 Explanations: 3:19 Fast dialog: 16:22 Comprehension Question: 17:47 I went to the bookstore to buy the textbooks I needed for this semester. I went in and saw that the books were organized alphabetically by department. I found the Chemistry department under the “C’s”, but, I couldn’t find the books for the class I was taking. I asked one of the clerks. Student: Excuse me, I’m having trouble finding the books for Chemistry 205. Could you help me? Clerk: Sure. That’s Chemistry 205, right? Okay, that would be over here. What course section? Student: Let me see. It’s section four with Professor Jackson. Clerk: For that section, there’s a textbook and a course reader. There’s also a set of course notes. Student: Oh, okay. If I get them and they’re the wrong ones, what’s the return policy? Clerk: You can return textbooks within two weeks. You can return course readers, course notes, and lab notes, too, as long as they’re unopened. Just make sure you have the receipt. Student: Wow, this textbook is $95. Are there any used copies and are all of these required? Clerk: Sorry, but it doesn’t look like they’re any used ones and, yes, they’re all required, not optional. Student: Okay, thanks. I also need to get a backpack, some notebooks, pens, and index cards. Clerk: Those will be on the second floor. Anything else you need? Student: No, that’s it. Thanks a lot.
Script by Meropi Peponides Audio Index Slow Dialog: 1:05 Explanations: 2:49 Fast Dialog: 14:27 Questions: 15:37 Christie: Hey, Garret, how’s it going? Garret: Christie, what’s up? I’m doing alright. Really busy though. Christie: How come? It’s only the first week. You don’t have homework yet, do you? Garret: No, but I’m going to a bunch of classes to try to figure out which ones I want to take. So far I’ve chosen five, but I’m going to have to drop one. Christie: Really? Which classes are you taking? I’m only taking three classes, but I’m looking for a fourth. Garret: I have three history classes and two psych classes. My major is history, so I’m really trying to get those out of the way. I’m want to graduate at the end of this year. Christie: That’s cool. I’m actually a pysch major. Which of your psychology classes do you like the best? Garret: I really like Psych 123. It’s with Professor McCann, who is great. You should see if there are any openings so you can enroll in it. Christie: Yeah, I’ll go online later today to see. I’ve heard good things about Professor McCann, too. Garret: Hey, what are you doing right now? Christie: Um, I was just going to walk home. Why? Garret: The class starts in 10 minutes. You should come with me and check it out. Christie: That’s a great idea. I’d love to!
Script by Dr. Lucy Tse Audio Index Slow dialog: 1:16 Explanations: 3:41 Fast dialog: 16:35 Questions: 18:04 We’ve been talking about weather phenomena this week, and one such phenomenon that affects this region of the country is El Niño. An El Niño occurs when there is a warming of the ocean surface along the South American coast. This warm water current is usually associated with atmospheric changes. As the warm air spreads toward the east, it takes along with it rain. This results in rainfall in areas that are normally dry. We classify an occurrence as El Niño when the water temperature is greater than 0.5°C across the central tropical region of the Pacific Ocean for a period longer than five months. So, how often do they occur? Generally speaking, we see El Niños every three to five years, although it may be as long as seven years between occurrences. We normally see these patterns in late December, hence the name “El Niño,” which means “the Christ child” in Spanish. El Niño episodes in recent years have lasted no longer than a few weeks or a month. After this time, the weather patterns go back to normal. But, there have been some cases of it lasting longer--several months in fact--which can have serious effects on the economy, such as the local fishing trade and the international markets that rely on it. Now, if you’ll turn to page 362 in your textbook, you’ll see a diagram…
Script by Dr. Lucy Tse Audio Index: Slow dialog: 1:00 Explanation: 3:50 Fast dialog: 16:30 Questions: 18:17 We are going to spend this week talking about cognitive psychology. Like the other theories of psychology we’ve covered so far, cognitive psychology studies the mental processes that drive behavior. This behavior includes thinking, reasoning, decision making, and even emotion and motivation. In 1967, a psychologist by the name of Ulric Neisser published a book called Cognitive Psychology. In it, he talked about how our minds—our cognition, our thinking—are part of everything a human being might possibly do. In short, according to Neisser’s definition, every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. Cognitive psychology is significantly different from other schools of thought in the field of psychology in two important ways. Uh, first, cognitive psychologists accept and make use of the scientific method. Like other areas of science, cognitive psychologists believe that phenomenon can be observed, hypotheses can be formed about them, and predictions can be made using experiments. Cognitive psychologists don’t believe that introspection is a valid method of scientific study, such as the methods used in Freudian psychology. A second key way that cognitive science differs from previous psychological approaches is that it acknowledges the existence of internal mental states such as beliefs, desires, and motivations. This is in stark contrast to the view taken by behaviorist psychology. We’re out of time for today. Be sure to read Chapter 4 in your textbook and come to class Friday ready to discuss it. That’s all for today.
Audio Index: Slow dialog: 0:55 Explanations: 2:27 Fast dialog: 14:03 Questions: 15:08 Juan: Hey, Aline, I wonder if I can ask you a question. Aline: Sure, what’s up? Juan: Well, I’m trying to apply for grad school, and wanted to get your advice on something. I have to get some rec letters from my professors, but I’m not quite sure how to go about it. Aline: I’d recommend talking to them personally about it by making an appointment to see them during their office hours. Give them the form with a self-addressed, stamped envelop, and make sure they know the deadline for it. Juan: So I shouldn’t just email them? Aline: You could, but I think it’s better for them to place a face with a name by talking to them personally. Of course, you should also write a short thank you note to follow-up. Juan: Got it. What about the transcripts? What do I need to do to get them sent to my potential colleges? Aline: Most universities are going to want to see official transcripts. You can check online with the registrar’s office. Juan: Thanks. You really know your stuff when it comes to grad school. Aline: I’m hardly an expert, but I’m glad I could help.
Script by Meropi Peponides Audio Index: Slow dialog: 1:08 Explanations: 3:16 Fast dialog: 10:50 Questions: 12:07 I was sitting in a lecture, waiting to get my test back. When I did get it back, I was shocked. My grade was a C-, even though I thought I had done really well. When I looked over the test to see what I got wrong, I couldn’t understand why I missed so many questions. I decided to talk to my professor about it after class. Jack: Excuse me, Professor Meyers? Prof. Meyers: Yes, did you have a question? Jack: Well, there are a lot of questions that I missed on the test, but I can’t figure out why I got them wrong. I was wondering if you could explain them to me. Prof. Meyers: Sure, I can go over them with you. The only problem is, I don’t have time right now, I have to get to another class. But could you come by my office hours later today? Jack: Yeah, that would work. Where is your office located? Prof. Meyers: It’s on the second floor of the Biology building. You pass by the lab, and there are a bunch of professor’s offices there. Mine is number 215. Jack: Great, what time should I stop by? Prof. Meyers: I will be there between 2:30 and 3:30 this afternoon. Jack: Perfect, I get out of class at 2:15, and I can head straight over. Prof. Meyers: Sounds good. If my door isn’t open, just go ahead and knock. I’ll be there. Jack: Thanks, Professor Meyers. See you this afternoon!
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Audio Index: Slow dialog: 1:05 Explanations: 4:43 Fast dialog: 17:35 Comprehension: 19:43 An important theoretical perspective in sociology is the notion of symbolic interactionism. We’ve talked about how we examine social behavior in this course, and how that behavior arises from intentions and motivations—what we might call, uh, “meanings”—and leads to certain events or results. As social psychologists, we try to understand this relationship between the individual mind, the group, and the behaviors that result. Let’s take a closer look at this idea. Our first task is to determine how our feelings and behaviors are influenced by the actual or implied presence of other humans. My feelings and behaviors are related to and influenced by the people around me, just as yours are. My level of trust, for example, is dependent in part on how you behave towards me, to some extent. Each individual influences the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of other individuals in our midst. The second stage of our study deals with how these same individuals influence the broader beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of the group around them. There are many ways to do this. We may look at how groups behave, for example, in a school setting—the jocks over here, the good students over there, and so forth. We can look at group behavior in the workplace, looking at issues such as how people are motivated or influenced by the company culture of which they are a part. Our place of work can influence our perspectives on what is considered “normal” and deviant behavior, for example. Note that we are looking here at how individuals and groups interact, whereas in stage one, we looked at individuals influencing other individuals. The final stage, you may have guessed, is examining how groups are influenced by other groups. Here we have a rich vein of possible subjects. Groups can ignore, hate, or feel a great affinity for other groups, depending on numerous factors. So far, so good. Now, let’s move on to some practical applications of this…
TOEFL Podcast #17 Part 2 of 2 Special thanks to Dr. Lucy Tse for help in producing this podcast. We discuss how to write the body and conclusion of an essay for the TOEFL or similar English examination.
Learn how to write an academic essay in English in this podcast. Part 1 of 2. Discusses the importance of reading in building writing skills, and what goes into the introduction of the essay.